Jean Baudrillard Part I

My ongoing understanding of Jean Baudrillard

 The beginning of my attempts to make sense of Jean Baudrillard’s writings so that I may eventually explore how they relate to my journey into Second Life.

Whilst Walter Benjamin and Marshall McLuhan were inspired by movies and television, Jean Baudrillard (who was influenced by McLuhan) described those using the computer as being lost in their own terminals. Cynthia Freeland describes this as “[….] a ‘terminal’ philosophy embracing millennial disillusionment.” (C. Freeland 2001:130).

Jean Baudrillard was born in Reims, France in 1929 at the beginning of what was termed ’The Great Depression” in America – an economic crisis that also affected Europe. He was the first of his working-class family to go to University, the Sorbonne, where he studied German language and literature before working as a teacher (from 1960 until 1966) alongside publishing literature reviews and translations of German authors. Whilst teaching German he began studying sociology, publishing his doctoral thesis in 1968, and went on to teach sociology at the University of Paris X Nanterre, where he eventually became a professor before moving to teach at the Universite de Paris-IX Dauphine in 1986, from which point he began to move away from sociology as a discipline although retaining his links with the academic world. In 1970 Baudrillard began making trips to the United States and also to Japan (where he was given his first camera in 1981). He became an intellectual celebrity, writing books and attending conferences. He appears to have had many intellectual influences from a variety of disciplines, including Sigmund Freud, Karl Marx, Roland Barthes and Marshall McLuhan. I’m not going to go into further detail here but summary information on Baudrillard’s life and ideas can be found here on the website of the European Graduate School, Switzerland, where he taught from its early beginnings in 1994 to his death in March 2007

Baudrillard is said to have been influenced by the concept of pataphysics, introduced to him through a philosophy professor, whilst at high school.  This concept is a literary trope invented by the French writer and playwright Alfred Jarry in the book Exploits and Opinions of Dr. Faustroll, where Jarry plays around with conventional concepts and interpretations of reality and the ‘neo-science of imaginary solutions’ expounded by his characters. “From pataphysics Baudrillard learned to mock science, write cryptically and allusively and seek politically inutility” (G. Genosko, p. 150 in R.G. Smith (Ed) 2010). Well that certainly provides an explanation for my difficulty in understanding Baudrillard’s concepts.

His essay Simulacra and Simulation was written in 1981 – the year he was given his first camera.   Simulation is one of his key concepts. Its Latin root means ‘to copy’ but the word itself has come to have slightly different meanings/ connotations all of which are present In Bauadrillard’s usage of the word. In modern English it came to have the connotation of falseness and pretence and has now come to mean creating an analogue or mathematical model of something, “ …  in order to study how it operates  via artificially or abstractly producing its effects.  With the advent of ‘realistic’ media …… it has also come to refer to an audio-visual experience that artfully mimics but otherwise has no connection with the reality it presents as in a flight simulator used in pilot training….” (Wernick, A in R.G. Smith 2010:1980). This kind of experience may both heighten the senses and be more real than real – i.e. hyper-real. I began to think here about the artist Matt Collishaw’s recent virtual reality Exhibition Thresholds (2017)  where he created a digitally reconstructed room to re-stage the 1839 Exhibition where William Henry Talbot Fox first presented his photographic prints to the public.

What Baudrillard was pointing towards was the idea of a copy which is not only indistinguishable from the original but such that the distinction between the two disappears. A simulacrum (a term borrowed from Plato) is a simulated representation which has no original, so bears no relation to any reality and is a means of concealing the absence of a reality.

To begin with Baudrillard provided three orders of simulacra (J. Baudrillard 1981:121)

  1. An individual artefact – e.g. handmade copy of a painting –naturalist, founded on the imager, imitation and counterfeit. Would this apply to the art of Bonsai?
  2. A mechanically produced copy such as a photograph or sound-recording where all copies are identical to each other – founded on energy force, its materialization by the machine and in the whole system of production
  3. Production of a mechanically reproducible copy which has no original outside the composite process of its studio production – founded on information, the model, the cybernetic game. This could fit with Second Life, perhaps also Matt Collishaw’s work, although ….

In 1987, Baudrillard also conceptualised a fourth stage

4.  ‘The fractal stage’ – the mechanically reproducible product is not a unique series but an infinite array of possibilities generated by models.

Daniel Chandler (2007:81) translates the four stages/phases of the image as:-

  1. It is the reflection of a basic reality
  2. It masks and perverts a basic reality
  3. It masks the absence of a basic reality
  4. It bears no relation to any reality whatever; it is its own simulacrum

I can’t find a description of what Baudrillard considers to be the Real – yet everything he writes appears to be based on that notion. Daniel Chandler recognizes this criticism, “the semiotic stance which problematizes reality and emphasizes mediation and convention is sometimes criticised as extreme ‘cultural relativism’ by realists – such critics often object to an apparent sidelining of referential concerns such as ‘accuracy’ (ibid)

I do agree with Chandler that we certainly experience much of our world through the media of television, films and newspapers etc.  Actually we used to experience the world outside our immediate environment through the Church, village gossip and ‘news’ from strangers who were passing through, I’m thinking, but I’m imagining that it might have been less contradictory. In the present we are bombarded daily with competing versions of ‘truth’, accusations of fake news etc and I don’t, at this stage,  want to dive into a more expanded exploration of Baudrillard’s concepts, although I have researched some counter- viewpoints.  In the meantime I’m going to rest with Chandler’s view that,  “Semiotics helps us to not take representations for granted as reflections of reality, enabling us to take them apart and consider whose realities they represent” (ibid 2007:82).



Baudrillard, J (1994) Simulcra and Simulation. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press
Chandler, D (2007) Semiotics: the Basics (2nd Edition) Abingdon: Routledge
Freeland, C (2001  )  Art Theory: A Very Short Introduction Oxford,. Oxford University Press
Smith, R.G. (Ed) (2010) The Baudrillard Dictionary: Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press




The Art of Bonsai

The object is not to make the tree look like a bonsai, but to make the bonsai look like a tree

The quote above is from John Yoshio Naka (1914-2004) master bonsai cultivator. Bonsai is the art of growing miniature trees and shrubs in decorative pots and a good bonsai is one that represents a real tree. Some people describe bonsai as the haiku of the tree world. The two words bon-sai mean a potted tree but bonsai are not just that as a bonsai is an exact replica of a natural tree in miniature form. Size and age are less important than the visual impact on the person looking at the tree, “but it is important to remember that in bonsai one is creating an image or an illusion” (P. Chan 1999:11). The art of bonsai has its origins in China – the Chinese being the first to practise the cultivation of trees and shrubs in ceramic flower pots. In relating the historical origins of Bonsai, Peter Chan (1999) refers to the fact that the Chinese have a very long tradition of gardening, the earliest of them being traced back to the Shang Dynasty (sixteenth to eleventh centuries BC). The gardens of the emperors were intended to be symbols of the empire in microcosm and designed in such a way that their miniature hills, mountains (having particular symbolic significance), streams and lakes symbolized their real counterparts. The mountains provided inspiration for scholars, who included poets and artists and these scholars, who were known as ‘literati’, exerted a profound influence on Chinese art and bonsai in particular (P. Chan 1999:21). The literati were essentially calligraphers, being literary scholars first and foremost, and their style of depicting trees quickly influenced the development of bonsai that bore little resemblance to trees seen in real life. “They are artistic impressions of trees, illusions if you like! This is precisely what bonsai is about” (ibid p. 22).

The miniature trees depicted in Chinese scroll paintings dating back to around AD600 were very similar to Chinese bonsai grown today. Bonsai gradually spread to other parts of the Orient and had gained a foothold in Japan by the 11th or 12th Century, being introduced by Chinese Buddhist monks.

(Katsushika Hokusai, ‘The Talisman’ (Mayoke), a colour woodblock print. © the Trustees of the British Museum)

Hokusai Bonsai Grower (1803) Woodblock Print

There is quite a difference between Chinese and Japanese styles of bonsai, the Japanese style being more naturalistic and with greater attention being paid to detail and overall presentation.

I lay no claim to knowledge of the art of Bonsai but I have been intrigued by the miniature perfection of these ‘natural’ sculptural replicas. for a long time.  Information on types of Bonsai trees can be found here   There’s a part of me that thinks it’s cruel to stunt their growth in this way; yet we prune trees and plants don’t we, and Peter Chan also points out that the fact that bonsai live to a great old age suggests they receive better treatment and care than their counterparts in the wild. At the beginning of Autumn last year my husband took up an interest in Bonsai as a hobby and I kept thinking I should photograph some of them which is why they suddenly came into my mind when talking with my tutor about Assignment 4. At the beginning of November last year I set up lights indoors and photographed some.

I certainly captured their shapes but didn’t feel entirely satisfied with them. The lighting could certainly be improved in another session. I had to spend quite a while ensuring the background sheet edited as an overall white – I was surprised how many YouTube videos there are explaining how to achieve this. Apart from that the aesthetic didn’t seem right – they looked more like catalogue images. The sun came out the next day and, as there was little wind, I decided to install the white backdrop outdoors and use my Polaroid 600 camera.

There was something about these that very much appealed to me even though they looked slightly wonky and less ‘real’. I decided to handwrite captions in pencil, with just the name of the tree and date photographed; scanned them and then posted one a day on my Instagram account. They gained some very positive comments which was pleasing. My handwriting of captions can certainly be improved – it’s hard to keep it straight when there isn’t a line to write on. I could use a ruler but I’ve found in the past that that cuts off the bottom of strokes and the joining by hand looks somehow artificial. I’ve now booked myself onto a half day workshop on Calligraphy later this month.


I began to puzzle “Why Bonsai, why polaroid (which is a revived older form of analogue yet instant photography), how does this fit into not only landscape but as a concurrent project with that of the virtual reality of Second Life”?    All of these questions given that the brief for Assignment 4 is to develop a project around the theme of identity within the current digital climate.

  • Why Bonsai? Their form, structure and miniature perfection have engaged artists for Centuries. The art is enduring so I’m part of a long line.
  • Why Polaroid? Firstly, having looked through the books I have on Hokusai I’ve now realised that, in many respects, Polaroid prints remind me of wood block prints – both have depth despite their flatness – the one through etching and the other through the way the emulsion works. I wrote about this earlier in this Module here   when looking again at Jeff Wall’s work and comparing it with that of Hokusai. Secondly, a bonsai tree is both a miniature replica and a living tree itself whilst being unique in that it shows the mark of an individual creator and that links it with a polaroid image which is also,  …a unique object, a tiny ‘sculpture’, an intersection between photography and fine art; not ephemeral but real and tangible. In contrast to the thousands of digital pictures taken each minute, a Polaroid remains special, each one exuding an innate sense of trust and intimacy. (R. Adam (2017:07)
  • The link with Landscape? A bonsai is a living tree, albeit a miniature one and a part of the natural environment. It has been shaped by the hand of man, as has the ‘landscape’ we inhabit and mould for our own purposes. I’ll be writing more about my relationship with landscape in a separate post.
  • The link with ‘virtual reality’? I’ve given considerable thought to this. For me this is connected with photography, indexicality, replication and, I had to admit, with Jean Baudrillard’s theory regarding Simulacra and Simulation’. I could no longer avoid having to think more deeply on this. I had been avoiding it because I kept wanting to argue with Baudrillard yet the thought of writing about this was exhausting in prospect. Again, I’ll be writing on this.



Adam, R (2017) Polaroid: The Missing Manual. London: Thames & Hudson
Chan, P (1999) Bonsai: The Art of Growing and Keeping Miniature Trees. London: Chancellor Press
Cark, T (Ed) (2017 Hokusai: Beyond the Great Wave London: Thames & Hudson

Assignment 4: Initial Planning on 26th October 2017


Assignment 4 : Digital Identities 1

 Brief – Develop a project around the theme of identity within the current digital climate.  This could be an autobiographical exploration examining how you relate to digital culture, or it could be a more critical examination of an aspect of digital culture.

Initial planning

Most of my Skype tutor feedback session on Assignment 3 had been spent discussing preparation for Assignment 4. Below is an extract from my own notes which also comprised the bulk of the written feedback report.

…… although I had experimented further with layering past and present images, I had probably moved on from exploring my father’s letters any further. I realised a while ago that I’d hardly been doing any new photography and that I was missing landscape and Wendy encouraged me to explore this.

  • What is ‘landscape’?
  • How do I experience, negotiate with and relate to it?
  • Are we losing landscape’s language/words in this digital world?
  • Are we losing our connection with the natural world now that we spend more time indoors, on the computer, watching TV?
  • What do I want to say about it with this piece of work?

I mentioned that I had been thinking of miniature landscapes such as Bonsai trees and had also been having a look at the ‘Second Life’ website which I find fascinating but am afraid I might get too obsessed with it. Wendy emphasised that Assignment 4 is intended to be more of a work in progress.  It doesn’t have to be ‘perfect’ and I should try to do it quickly. We agreed:-

  • I will brainstorm some ideas and create a mind map to send to Wendy.
  • I will spend half a day a week on photographing the Bonsai trees – set up a background and lights for them; see what happens.
  • Explore the landscapes in ‘Second Life’, as if I am taking a walk, and create a visual diary by experimenting with screen grab sketches and some form of narration

Some practitioners to research to begin with:-

John Gerrard and his CGI work using politicised filters:
Alan Warburton:
Carroll/Fletcher Gallery and artists represented there:
Theories of Jean Baudrillard:

Dystopian Landscapes – e.g. ‘Blade Runner’, ‘Avatar’, ‘Mad Max’ films
Idealised Landscapes –  ‘Avatar’.

 I emailed my initial plan as a mind-map, together with an initial screen grab taken in “Second Life”

Assignment 4 Initial ideas

First shot from Second Life

and this was approved with the comment “Remember Catherine, to be as playful as you can be at this stage.  Don’t over analyse(your research is always extremely thorough. No need to worry there.) Rather use the next couple of assignments to have fun and experiment with different ideas.  There’s no reason why you can’t keep two smaller projects running in parallel. ”



Project 4: Ex 4.4 Selfies

What does the phenomenon of the selfie tell us about how photography is popularly used nowadays? Illustrate your post with recent examples from the internet.

As this is solely an exercise I’m using it to throw down a few passing thoughts on positive aspects which I think can sometimes get overlooked in the light of stories in the media more often revealing some of the unpleasant aspects and effects.

I recently accessed a Post on the British Library blog writing about the tourist season in London and so many people with selfie sticks and smart phones – “…. It’s easy to wish that selfies didn’t exist”.  But such curmudgeonly attitudes to self-portraitists overlook the fact that selfies have existed for a very long time and offer unique insights into some brilliant and multi-talented artists.” That’s if we extend OED dictionary definition of ‘photographic self-portraits’ to cover those made with pen and ink then selfies have existed in Britain for over 1000 years. The earliest known surviving manuscript self-portrait was made by St Dunstan, archbishop of Canterbury (d. 988) in the 10th century and the blog post goes on to provide other examples, explaining that these often involved a different type of self-promotion – one focused on humility before the divine and saints.  There also looks to be a useful website here and Frances Borzello (1998) also provides fascinating example of the ways in which female artists were also able to include references to themselves in their work at a time when women artists were not usually recognized.

Fast forward to photography:-

According to Petapixel the earliest self-portrait made was by Robert Cornelius  , an amateur photographer and lamp-maker.

(Downloaded from

Written on the back is, “The first light Picture ever taken. 1839”  no specific date though, so let’s say he was the first American photographer to create a selfie and leave the laurels with Hippolyte Bayard (June 1839)   creator of the first staged photograph Self Portrait as a Drowned Man pretending to have committed suicide because of lack of recognition of his own invention of a photographic process, in favour of Louis Daguerre’s daguerreotype process.

Since photography’s origins in the late nineteenth century, artists have expressed the idea that the self-portrait is a form of performance. Kismaric states, “The photographer who attempts an investigation of his physiognomy or personality or who consciously or unconsciously projects an idea about himself enacts a role. The plasticity of photography allows the self-portraitist to experiment, to assume many identities; in self-portraiture the photographer can become the hero, the adventurer, the aesthete – or a neutral ground upon which artistic experiments are played out.” (Taken from a press-release for Self-Portrait: The Photographer’s Persona 1840-1985  an Exhibition at MOMA from 7th November, 1985 to 7th January, 1986.)

Cindy Sherman was one of the photographers included in that Exhibition and she is famous for her self-portraits commenting on traditional/stereotypical female roles. Sherman has also recently appeared on Instagram  with images that include weirdly distorted self-portraits.  I had almost reached the conclusion that this must be a different Cindy Sherman, but this was confirmed not to be the case by an article by Noah Becker which recently appeared in the Guardian  .  Thanks to my fellow student Sarah-Jane Field for alerting me to this article. Whilst I agree regarding the distorted shots and the mystery as to why Sherman is creating these portraits, I have thought further concerning Becker’s view that, “they hold up a dark mirror to our era of self-obsession”.

How is it that it’s okay for artists to continue using self-portraits to enact different roles and assume different identities but not okay for ‘the general public’ to do so with technology that is cheap, easily available and doesn’t require great photographic technique or talent?  The advent of cheaper cameras earlier in the 20th Century enabled those moving away from family to keep in touch in a more intimate way. Recent examples have been Facebook pages where those serving in the Armed Forces can do likewise. Adolescence is well-known as the time when many young people are struggling to answer the question, “Who am I?” and it’s not surprising that Facebook and Instagram have been seized upon by them so they can play out these versions of themselves.

Some artists have first become well-known through digital media. One such is Molly Soda, a digital performance artist who is best known for her book Pics or It Didn’t Happen: Images Banned from Instagram (see here) She began creating artwork in the webcam days of MySpace and Tumblr and her work has now expanded beyond the internet. Soda has a strong Instagram following  (68.9k followers at 4th January 2018) where her feed is composed just about entirely of photographs of herself – un-photo-shopped and au naturel which she believes makes her followers less self-conscious about themselves as well.  You can find out more about her by putting her name in the search box on and this also brings up other posts on how Instagram artists are changing our views on body image and breeding a new generation of idols.

Another fellow student, Nuala, has just drawn my attention (via Facebook) to an article in Lens Culture . The essay by J.H. Pearl concerns the discomforts caused by being photographed, using Roland Barthes’ writing on this topic as a focus.  One of the paragraphs seems most timely in stating

To grouse about the vanity of selfies is to forget they comprise networked conversations. People, not just celebrities, use them to connect. For Barthes, ‘The ‘private life’ is ….that zone of space where I am not an image, an object”; the camera, he believed, invaded that space. But selfies seem less like invasions than invitations. And they permit us to be subjects, as well as objects, taking our own pictures almost however we like.



Borzello, F (1998) Seeing Ourselves: Women’s Self-Portraits. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd.




Project 3: Exercise 4.3 – Memes

 ‘Memes” are units of cultural information, which are exchanged not within a ‘gene pool’ but within a ‘meme pool’. The former transferring biological information and the latter being imitated as it is passed along communication networks and also influencing the behaviour of the recipients. They occur in a variety of forms and it seems like a ‘meme’ can be just about anything –  so long as it’s transmitted, repeated over and over and intended to change people’s behaviour. The word was coined by Richard Dawkins in his 1976 book The Selfish Gene and is a shortening of the ancient Greek word mimeme – imitated thing/to imitate.  The word may be relatively new but the process is not.James Gleick looks at What Defines a Meme in an article in Smithsonian Magazine  in May 2011.

I’ve been wondering whether the wall paintings that appeared in early churches could be counted as memes – they were similar in form, acting to give messages to those unable to read the Latin in bibles and would serve as emphasis to sermons. Move forward to Lord Kitchener’s posters recruitment poster WWI which remains instantly recognisable to many and is still regularly copied in advertising and used as a satirical motif in the media.

BBC News online magazine presented an interesting article about the poster here

There was another influential meme produced during WWII

(Cartoon by Fougasse (pseudonym of Punch editor Kenneth Bird) 1940-1042 approx)

The saying “walls have ears” appears to date back Centuries ago and variations of it are found in many languages. There’s an article concerning an interview, found in the media,  with Jan Koum, founder of WhatsApp, where Koum used the expression in referring to WhatsApp’s emphasis on privacy and what it was like growing up in the former Soviet Union. An interesting juxtaposition of influence and idea.

Memes and Digital Culture

Paul Frosh has referred to the propensity of digital technologies to “foreground the ‘memetic’ nature of much cultural production” (Frosh 2013:145) whereby the web and social media, “have enabled their multiplication as preferred modes of popular expression, while at the same time making visible memetic procedures of replication, mutation and dissemination”.

My Facebook feed usually contains a number of memes of different varieties – sometimes they make me laugh and sometimes they make me frown particularly those which include a piece of ‘fake news’ as a way of further ridiculing someone unpopular or attempting to persuade. I’m not being snobbish here as I occasionally post memes myself. Whilst they have been used for more altruistic purposes,  Internet memes can often  tend to focus on something ridiculous, that makes people look slightly foolish The example given being the ‘Crasher Squirrel” that then triggered ‘endless interpretations’.

On 11th December the Livewire site gives  “50 Internet Memes that Have Won Our Hearts” and, as I expected includes the famous Grumpy Cat (No. 4). During my research for this exercise I learned that photographing cats in in this way, including captions, goes back to the studios of Harry Pointer and Harry Frees in Victorian times and LOLspeak started in the 1830s in Boston newspapers – see here.

The list includes the  Spinning Ballerina Illusion which I hadn’t seen before. I saw her turning clockwise first, then anti-clockwise and so on. How about you?

In general, I’ve appreciated doing this exercise because it’s made me realise the extent of influence that apparently simple visual/textual captions can have a more lasting influence. The exercise requests me to create my own photographic response to an internet meme, something original or my own interpretation of an existing meme. It might be funny or profound, but it should make people want to look at it and share it. I’ll come back to this exercise when something has come to mind



Frosh (P) (2013) “Beyond the image bank: digital commercial photography” (2013) In:
Lister, M (Ed) (2013) The Photographic Image in Digital Culture. Abingdon: Routledge. pp. 131-148




Project 2: Exercise 4.2 How is Foucault’s theory of Panopticism relevant to digital culture

Summary of Foucault’s theory

See below:

Summary of Foucault’s Theory of Panopticism_Project 2

Comments on its relevance to digital culture

Foucault is certainly very positive of Bentham’s theories and I am also reminded of Bentham’s other concept of ‘the greatest good for the greatest number’ which permeates some of our political institutions. The emphasis upon information collection fits with our increasingly bureaucratic system of government and reliance on quantification and data collection as opposed to quality measures and person-centred evaluation.  The notion of psychological trickery is a good one; how many of us automatically slow down whilst driving when we see warnings of a speed camera, despite knowing that many of them do not operate due to financial constraints.

University College of London (UCL) ran a PanoptiCam Daily Time-lapse Project from Jeremy Bentham’s box there. The PanoptiCam was a tongue in cheek comment on Bentham’s “inspection house” but it also had a genuine research element ‘being used to test algorithms to count visitor numbers to museum exhibit cases using low cost webcam solutions”. See here

The concept can be applied to Facebook in terms of virtual surveillance – whilst each user becomes the centre of observation s/he can also control what is seen and not seen. Every action taken on Facebook is controlled and monitored by the site’s design and there is collection of data usage. Users have to be either male or female so fit into gender norms and the site’s rules and regulations help to control content.  Users self-regulate knowing that others are following them but they can also create ‘false’ profiles. We don’t know who is looking if posts are ‘public’ and I’ve been surprised by how many individual Users do maintain a public activity. The account doesn’t disappear when the User signs off so that also allows for constant surveillance. Here’s a peep into how the algorithms work

Currently, complaints about CCTV cameras and loss of privacy are also balanced by calls for more such surveillance of places such as hospital, nursing homes and schools to protect the vulnerable from harm. Drones can be used for humanitarian purposes as well as in remote surveillance or long-range missiles.

There are many opportunities for Artists/photographers take advantage of these types of surveillance/monitoring techniques. For example, I wrote about some of them here  in my review of the “A Handful of Dust” Exhibition. In his work A New American Picture .  Doug Rickard located American street scenes using Google Street View  and then re-photographed them on his computer screen  with a tripod-mounted camera, “freeing the image from its technological origins and re-presenting them on a new documentary plane”. Jon Rafman  is a Canadian artist whose work centres around the emotional, social and existential impact of technology on contemporary life (he also has a SecondLife persona).

Mishka Henner has sourced imagery through the internet, television and satellites to comment on activities which are usually ‘hidden’  – as here  . Broomberg & Chanarin  created their series Spirit is a Bone using a facial recognition system developed in Moscow for public security. The artists Leon Cmielewski and Josephine Starrs, amongst others, have created performance works  that draw attention to the potential for attacks by drones on civilians in combat zones.

Edmund Clark’s work  links together history, politics and representation, in recent years focussing on, “…… the hidden experiences and spaces of control and incarceration in the ‘Global War on Terror’. Such practices seem many steps beyond Foucault’s concept of mind over mind psychological trickery inculcating self-regulation to one of psychological torture/terror  (as in Guantanamo: If the light Goes out)   and remote control and surveillance (as in Control Order House. In many respects the idea of remotely tracking offenders’ movements can seem like a more humane method of curtailing sentenced offenders’ movements as an alternative to imprisonment but Clark offers a different viewpoint here in respect of returning detainees.   In Section 4 Part 20: One Day on a Saturday (2011) he also created an installation work putting together material emanating from the prison camps at Guantanamo Bay. An extract is below.

<p><a href=”″>Section 4 Part 20: One Day on a Saturday (2 min extract)</a> from <a href=”″>edmundclark</a&gt; on <a href=””>Vimeo</a&gt;.</p>



Evans, J & Hall, S (1999 ) Visual Culture: The Reader, UK. SAGE Publications Ltd





Project 1 and Exercise 4.1 : Creation of false or alternative identities online

The Virtual World of Second Life

Second Life (SL) was originally conceived by Philip Rosedale who began working on the concept in 1991. At first it was more like a video game but then he and his team realised that users wished to create their own experiences. SL began beta testing in November 2002 and went live on 23rd June, 2003. It is an online virtual world created by Linden Lab where users create avatars (virtual representations of themselves) and have the ability to interact with other virtual avatars, places and objects. The objects are built by using 3D modelling tools based on simple geometric shapes and are able to interact through the use of Linden Scripting Language (a procedural scripting language) Sculpted prims, mesh, textures for clothing or other objects, animations, and gestures can be created using external software and imported and users retain copyright for any content they create.

Anyone can register, download, install and run SL but there is an optional monthly charge if one wishes to buy land, a house or purchase more complex avatars.  A monthly subscription includes a set amount of virtual Linden dollars to use for these purposes but more virtual dollars can also be obtained in exchange for additional ‘real’ currency. That’s the odd thing about it because people can actually make money by selling objects within SL.

The Terms of Service are quite comprehensive (see here)  and users have to agree to them before accessing/using SL and two Sections in particular are important to take into account. [i] [ii]  Although you can do ‘virtually’ anything you like, appear how you like, choose to be a different gender etc SL’s rules and Etiquette are listed on a notecard in every User’s Library, including six cardinal sins (“the Big Six” which are intolerance, harassment, assault, disclosure, indecency (unless on private land) and disturbing the peace. [iii]

I have only been able to find a 2008 version of the official guide to SL which does provide a comprehensive introduction to the way the site operates. Some real-life universities have set up a virtual branch there, as well as companies, well-known pop groups and a virtual art world.  In 2007 Richard Minsky, artist and entrepreneur, started a website and blog as a critical review and journal of art in SL, and there is information and a video here  where he gave a presentation at Location One.  This included him navigating SL in his avatar identity (blonde-haired woman) to show the variety of artists and art locations there which appear and disappear as time goes on. Having registered SLART as a trademark with the US Patent and Trademark Office Minsky also threatened legal action against those who used the term to refer to art in SL, see here . In 2008 he filed a complaint against Linden Lab and an art gallery in SL operated by an avatar but litigation ended in January 2009 when a private settlement was reached. The SLART website no longer appears to exist but there is another site The ArtWorld Market Report which includes a blog – the last post being in June 2015.

I’ve noted the above information as it shows how we sometimes continue our propensity towards conflict into a virtual world despite the opportunities towards personal development. I want to return now, though, to  the emphasis on the opportunities for social interaction and self-development in SL.

“Your avatar choices say a lot about who you are; to the people you encounter in the SL world, your avatar is who you are. It’s true too – your avatar choices reflect your personality and mentality.” (M. Rymaszewski et al (2008), p.10).

Chapter 11 is titled “Considering your real-world self” and beings by asking readers to consider who they are offline.  Yes, it does seem odd to offer this virtual world where I can be anything and then to ask me, “Who are you?” That’s because,

“… rather than totally reinventing ourselves when we enter a world like Second Life , what we’re really doing is extending ourselves – our existing hopes, ambitions, and ideals – and adapting them within the newfound communities of people that the online space affords”. (ibid, p. 227).

“So before you discard yourself at the digital doors, remember that who you are inside of Second Life is part of who you want to become when you’re offline. Don’t reject it – embrace it! ” (ibid p. 228).

I’m sure many people desire to become a whole, new, different person in a virtual world so this struck me as quite a strong message that we can never entirely escape the effect of our culture, nature and upbringing, whilst acting as a reminder that change is possible. Examples are also provided by Robbie Cooper in his book Alter Ego: Avatars and their creators (2007).  Cooper, also known for his work looking at young video-game players  spent three years travelling the world and interviewing people who ‘played’ in the virtual world; placing their portraits next to their avatars whilst also looking at how we create our online personas in a way to transcend our physical existence. He looked at a number of players and game designers on a variety of sites, several of whom had SL presence as Users/Avatars; SL personnel; designers and/or research analysts. Of course there are some who have become so immersed in this virtual world that they spend inordinate amounts of time there but there are other hopeful stories about the way in which people who suffer from disabilities have been able to transcend them in SL, as can be seen in the video:-



Cooper, R et al, (2007) Alter Ego: Avatars and their creators
Rymaszewski et al (2008) second life: the official guide , Indiana. Wiley Publishing Inc



[i] Section 2.4 states “You grant certain Content licenses to other users by submitting your Content to publicly accessible areas of the Service”.

[ii] Section 2.5 states “You also grant Linden Lab and other users of the Service a license to use your Content in snapshots and machinima that is displayed in publicly accessible areas of the Service”

[iii] In fact from early 2007 to late 2008 there was a website/blog Virtually Blind  which covered legal issues that impacted virtual worlds.